# Undergraduate Programs

 Course Code Title and Description Unit Lecture Hour Practical Hour Course Status PHY 101 Elementary Physics for Students of Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine. Linear motion: Motion in a circle and simple harmonic motion, Gravitation. Statics and hydrostatics.  Elasticity, friction, viscosity and surface tension. Heat: Temperature, thermometers. Expansion of solids, liquids and gases. The gas laws, change of state. Kinetic theory of matter. Transfer of heat; Waves; Sound waves; Resonance; Reflection and refraction of light at plane and curved surfaces.     The human eye. Dispersion. Optical instruments. Current electricity. Ohm’s law. Potentiometer. Electrolysis, cells, magnets, magnetic induction and alternating current. Electrostatics, X-rays. Radioactivity, Atomic Physics, Introduction to electronics. 4 45 45 PHY 113 Basic Principles of Physics III – Electricity and Magnetism Coulomb’s law, electric charges and methods of charging. Electric field intensity and charge distribution in conductors and insulators of various configurations. Electric potential, potential gradient and the electrical potential energy. Capacitors and dielectric. Ohm’s law and analysis of direct-current circuits containing only resistors, cells and simple circuit laws e.g. Kirchhoff’s laws. The Wheatstone bridge and potentiometer and their applications. Electro-dynamics of charged particles, Magnetic fields and magnetic forces of/on current-carrying conductors. Applications to measuring instruments. Concept of Electromagnetic induction and applications: motors, dynamos, generators, etc. A.C. voltages applied to Inductors, Capacitors and resistance singly and combined. The transformer. 3 45 0 C PHY 114 Basic Principles of Physics IV– Waves, Optics and Modern Physics Waves.: Definition and types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves, transverse and   longitudinal waves; properties of waves: reflecton, refraction, interference, diffraction (and Huygen’s principle), polarization as a property of  transverse waves only. superposition of waves; modes of vibration, resonance, Doppler effect,  Propagation of sound in gases, solids and liquids and their properties. Optics: Refraction of light at plane and curved surfaces, the lens maker’s formula. Properties of lenses and applications in optical instruments-e.g. microscopes, telescopes, etc. Aberrations, Polarization, Interference, Dispersion of light. Photometry and light spectrum analysis. The unified spectra analysis of waves. Modern Physics: The atomic structure, Isotopes., vacuum and semi-conductor devices. The Cathode-ray and x-ray tubes, x-rays and applications, Radioactivity. 3 45 0 C PHY114 Basic Principles of Physics I – Mechanics and Properties of Matter Rectilinear motion: Newton’s laws of motion Gravitation. Satellites and radial escape velocity. Work and energy, Friction and Viscosity. Orbital motion, Moments and energy of rotation. Simple harmonic motion of simple systems. Simple properties of solids-elasticity, etc. Surface tension and capillary effects. 3 45 0 C PHY 112 Basic Principles of Physics II– Heat and Thermodynamics Temperature scales. 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics as applied to the property of solids, liquids and gases e.g. calorimetry, expansion of liquids, gas properties, heat engines, heat pumps and refrigeration. Third law and absolute zero of temperature. Thermal Conductivity, types of radiation and energy spectrum of radiation. 3 45 0 C PHY 118 Experimental Physics 1 Experiments arising from the theory courses of PHY 114, 113, PHY 112 and PHY 115 are illustrative of basic physical techniques for observation, measurements, data collection and analysis and deduction. 3 0 135 C PHY 201 Classical Mechanics I An introduction to classical mechanics, space and time; straight line kinematics; motion in a plane: forces and equilibrium; particle dynamics; universal gravitation; collisions and conservation laws; work and potential energy; vibration motion, conservative forces; inertial forces and non-inertial frames; central force motions; rigid bodies and rotational dynamics. 3 45 0 R PHY 203 Elements of Modern Physics Atomic nature of matter and electronic structure of the atom,Compton effect, thermionic emission, uncertainty principle. The atomic model. Nuclear structure and radioactivity ,single particle features, collective states; measurement and detection of charged particles (including the treatment of detectors) X-rays: nature and spectra. 3 45 0 R PHY 204 Electromagnetism I: Electrostatics and field concepts, electric currents and magnetic fields; properties of electro-magnetic waves, electro-magnetic wave spectrum and applications. Interference: Young’s slit, Lylod’s mirror and Newton’s rings, Thick lens optics. 3 45 0 R PHY 251 Electrophysics for Physiotherapy Students Newton’s laws of motion, rotation of rigid body. Machines, Elasticity, Liquid flow. Heat: Temperature and thermometers, 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics, Carnot cycles, Simple Heat engines and refrigerators. Electricity: Current electricity, Thermal and chemical effects of current, Alternating current series circuit, capacitors and Inductances, Transformers. Modern Physics: Structure of the atom. Energy levels and radiation. Electro-magnetic spectrum and its application to medicine. Electronics: Rectifiers and simple amplifiers. Sound Waves: Nature of sound waves. Ultrasound and its application to medicine. 3 45 0 PHY 271 Physics for Biology I Elementary Kinematics and vector algebra. Newton’s law of motion. Statics: forces acting on a human body. Elasticity and strength of materials. Momentum conservation; application to concussion and fracture during impacts, and to similar medical situations: conservation of energy, the first law of thermodynamics; applications to metabolism and work done by various organs of the body. Angular momentum and torque. Harmonic motion and diffusion. Application to osmotic pressure and passage of substances through capillary walls Molecular motion in gases: distribution functions and the Boltzmann principle. Intermolecular collisions and transport processes. Equilibrium in external fields; the centrifuge and measurement of molecular weight. 3 45 0 PHY 272 Physics for Biology II Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law, electric fields, electric fields, Gauss’s law, the electrostatic potential. Laplace’s equation, point charges continuous charge distributions and dipoles, capacitors, dielectric and field energy. Nernst-Planck equation and memberance potentials. Debye-Huckel theory of electrolytes: Solubility and electro-phoresis of proteins, quasistatic flow of charge, distribution of potential in volume conductors. Application to electro-cardiography. Magnetic fields, Ampere’s law; the law of Biot and Savart; magenetic properties of matter. Faraday’s law of induction. Electrical circuits, oscillators, feedback, with application to medical instrumentation: pacemakers. 3 45 0 PHY 290 Industrial Training I 3 C PHY 291 Research Method I Sources of Information, Components of Scientific Methods, Design of Experiments, Execution of Experiments, Classification and Sampling. 1 15 0 C PHY 292 Workshop practice  This is a purely practical course. Machines introduced in TME 121 are to be used by students for simple projects (both metal and wood).Each student is expected to write reports on projects carried out. 1 0 15 C PHY 294 Experimental Physics II Laboratory experiments fundamental to the development of classical physics illustrative of basic physical techniques for observation and measurement, and giving data challenging to analyse. About FIFTEEN experiments judiciously selected by staff. 2 0 90 C PHY 295 Experimental Physics III Continuation of PHY 294 2 0 90 C PHY 301 Thermodynamics Thermodynamic potentials and their uses; chemical potential; introduction to Maxwell relations and their applications. Phase changes (real gases and Van der Waal equation; Euler equation; conditions for equilibrium, latent heat, Clausius-Clapeyron Gibbs-Duhen relation, phase rule). Kinetic Gas theory (Introduction of Boltzmann distribution; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (velocity distribution in gases); pressure and fluxes; barometric height distribution; equipartition theorem; degrees of freedom). Basic terms & equations in transport phenomena (Momentum - viscosity, energy - heat,mass - concentration gradients. Viscosity and flux in Astrophysics. Flow problems in Soft Matter Physics. Applications of thermodynamics to Simple Physical Problems(Thermodynamics of Radiation. Heat capacity of a vacuum – black body radiation; pressure and energy density. Kirchhoff’s Law. Stefan- Boltzmann Law. Planck’s Law). 2 30 0 R PHY 302 Electronics I An elementary but practical introduction to electronic circuits and circuitory. Amplification and the transistor, the field-effect transistor. Thermionic emission and the cathode ray tube; Negative feedback, impedance matching; semi-conductor device characteristics, Amplification at high frequencies; Low-frequency signals; d.c. and the differential amplifier, Power supplies and power control; Pulse handling and time constraints; integrated circuit building bricks; positive feedback circuits and signal generators; logic, counters and timers (ALTERNATE WEEK LABORATORY). 2 14 45 R PHY 303 Classical Mechanics II Mechanical vibrations and waves; simple harmonic motion, superposition, forced vibrations and resonance, coupled oscillations and normal modes; vibrations of continuous systems; reflection and refraction: sound, string instruments, brass and woodwinds; Doopler effect, phase and group velocity. Fraunhofer diffraction, gratings, Fresnel zone plates; plane wave solution of Maxwell’s equation; polarization biref-ringent materials quarter wave plate, circular polarized light. 2 30 0 C PHY 304 Principles of Quantum Physics I Introduction to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics(including experimental basis of quantum physics); uncertainty principle; Schroedinger equation(including solutions of Schroedinger equation in both one-dimension and central potential in three dimensions) ; Dirac notation; matrix mechanics; tunneling and harmonic oscillator, angular momentum, hydrogen atom, spin, Pauli principle, time-independent perturbation theory; scattering. 2 30 0 C PHY 305 Numerical Computation in Physics Scientific Programming: Review of programming in FORTRAN90/95. Numerical Methods: Fundamentals of numerical methods and introduction to NUMERICAL RECIPES in C/C++ [OR in FORTRAN as the case may be]. Use of NR subroutines as an example of use of existing subroutines/numerical solution libraries. A number of applications selected from: solution of non-linear algebraic equations, zeros of polynomials, systems of linear algebraic equations; interpolation, least squares and cubic spline curve-fitting, numerical integration, solution of ordinary differential equations, etc. Extras: Writing your own numerical routines: algorithms for selected numerical solution methods; iterative schemes, convergence issues, treatment of data, etc. Monte Carlo integration. Thermodynamic simulations with the Ising model.   Practical Sessions: students will be assigned to practical groups depending on the number of available personal laptops; hence, possession of personal laptops is encouraged. 2 15 45 R PHY 306 Electronics II Frequency response analysis of electronics amplifiers oscillators; introduction to operational amplifiers stabilized power supplies and voltage regulation circuit. The transistor as a switch, logic gates, truth tables, noise margin totem pole. Open collector and tristate outputs TTL, CMOS, NMOS, ECL. Combinational systems, Boolean algebra, identities, De-morgan’s law, Karnaugh maps, Quinne Mc chusky Minimization by computer aided techniques. The half and full adder, Flip-flop, R-S, J-Kand D types. Edge and level trigger, master-slave types the shift register. Conversion techniques: Frequency to voltage, staircase generator, analogue to digital, digital to analogue. Modulation, Radio and T.V. Systems, telephone instruments, lines loses, radar data transmission. 3 30 45 R PHY 307 Solid State Physics I Basic concepts of the quantum theory of solids: periodic structures and symmetry of crystals; diffraction; lattice dynamics, phonons, thermal properties of solids; electron state in metals, the free electron model, weak and tight binding approximations, energy band structures in metals semiconductors and insulators. 2 30 0 C PHY 308 Electromagnetism II Theory of isotropic dielectrics, Gauss theorem in dielectrics, Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations, uniqueness theorem, magnetic shells, steady circuits, magnetic focussing, magnetron, magnetic properties, motors, generators, energy in electromagnetic field, Maxwell’s equations, Poynting vectors, dispersion in dielectrics, introduction to spherical waves. 2 30 0 R PHY 309 Acoustics General discussion of sound generation and propagation in elastic media. Conversion between acoustical, electrical, and mechanical energy. Lumped-parameter approximations. Sound in rooms, microphones, loud speakers, and audio communications systems. Sound and man. 2 30 0 E PHY 310 Introduction to Nuclear Physics Nuclear potential and energy levels; X-rays – spectra, scattering and diffraction. Natural radioactivity and radio active series. Nuclear composition, size and binding energy. Nuclear forces. Properties of particles and their interactions with matter; detectors and instrumentation. 2 30 0 R PHY 311 Mathematical Methods for Physics I Complex variable theory and their relation to selected physical problems. Complex differentiation and integration, Cauchy’s theorem, Taylor and Laurent series, Residues and physical applications of conformal mapping. Matrices and eigenvalue problems: Determinants, adjoint, inverse of matrix. Solution of linear equations using matrices. Singular and non-singular transformations. 2 30 0 R PHY 312 Mathematical Methods for Physics II Ordinary differential equations of first and second order and their physical applications. Introduction to numerical analysis: finite differences, interpolation etc. Laplace and Fourier transform methods. Linear and non-linear partial differential equations of order one. Homogeneous partial differential equations of higher order with constant co-efficient. 2 30 0 C PHY 313 Introduction to Special Relativity Inertial frames of reference, Galilean transformations and Newton’s laws of motion. The ether theory and Einstein principle of relativity. Lorentz  transformations and consequences of Lorentz transformation: Loss of simultaneity of events, Length contraction, Time dilation and the concept of proper time.  Intervals between events and relativistic (Murkowski) geometry, Doppler Effect. Relativistic Kinematics: Lorentz transformations of velocity and star’s aberration, Lorentz transformation of acceleration. Relativistic Dynamics: The mass of a moving particle, momentum, work, kinetic energy and their relativistic units. Einstein’s mass-energy formula (E=mc2) and applications to fission and fusion reactions. Some applications of relativistic dynamics to single particle motions in electric and magnetic fields. Compton Effect. Relativistic invariance of Maxwell’s equations: Transformations of E and B, transformations of charge and current densities, transformations of D and H. Introduction to general theory of relativity. 2 30 0 C PHY 314 Semiconductor Devices The physics, modelling and application of selected semiconductor devices. Brief review of junction and bipolar transistor physics. Major emphasis on MOS devices including field effect transistors and charge coupled devices. Also consideration of advanced bipolar structures, Schottky barrier devices, device noise, light emitting diodes and photodetectors. 2 30 0 E PHY 315 Research Method II Measurements and analysis of Experimental Data, Errors of Measurements and Report Writing. 1 15 0 C PHY 372 Physics for Biology III Application of X-ray diffraction and micro-molecular structure determination. Modern optical techniques in medical instrumentation. Coupled oscillations, normal modes, molecular vibrations infrared spectroscopy. Acoustic waves in gases and liquids, the wave equation. Reflection, refraction and attenuation of sound. Ultrasonic diagnosis. The ear and hearing. Electro-magnetic wave and physical optics: diffractions, interference and scattering of waves. 3 45 0 PHY 390 Industrial Training II 3 C PHY 394 Experimental Physics IV Continuation of PHY 295; with experiments chosen to span the range of topics covered by the 300-series courses. 2 0 90 C PHY 395 Experimental Physics V Continuation of PHY 394; with experiments chosen to cover the basic principles of physics. 3 0 135 C PHY 403 STATISTICAL PHYSICS Basic concepts of classical statistical mechanics as a microscopic theory of thermodynamics; phase space, phase trajectory, ergodicity, Liouville theorem, the statistical distribution function (Gibbs formalism), time and statistical averaging. Modern approach: statistical definition of entropy, microstates (quantum states), fundamental basis of statistical mechanics and statistical ensembles, the Gibbs distribution, the partition function, statistical counting and probability. Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein statistics. Bose-Einstein condensation. Extras: Application to simple systems; Bose and Fermi gases, etc. Fluctuations and noise. Response functions. The fluctuation-Dissipation theorem. Derivation of thermodynamic relations from the Gibbs distribution.  Derivation of equations of state.  Linear response theory. Monte Carlo simulation of disordered/condensed matter systems; Ising Model of magnetism, Biophysical models, formation and evolution of of self-organized surface nanostructures. 3 45 0 R PHY 405 Principles of Quantum Physics II Mathematical basis of the general formalism; linear algebra: vector space, linear mappings, inner product spaces and orthogonality, diagonalization (eigenvalues and eigenvectors), linear functional and the dual space. General formalism of quantum mechanics (QM) and its physical interpretation; the Dirac notation of bracs and kets, dynamical variables and observables, Axioms of QM and basic concepts; predictions concerning future measurement, hermitian conjugation, projector, continuous eigenvalues and the Dirac delta function. Representations in discrete and continuous spaces. Pictures of QM; Schroedinger, Heissenberg, [and interaction] pictures. Uncertainty principles. Canonical commutation relations. The fundamental quantum conditions. Equations of motion.  Superposition and Indeterminacy.  Application I: Linear angular momentum operators and commutation relations. Spin. Extras: Approximation methods; perturbation theory and variational approximation. Application II: Time-dependent problems; radiation theory: emission and absorption of radiation, properties and spectra of hydrogen-like atoms, fine-structure, selection rules. Zeeman and Stark effects. Application III: Atomic structure; Pauli-exclusion principles, many-electron atoms, periodic table of the elements. Application IV: Scattering (or collision) theory. 3 45 0 R PHY 406 Classical Mechanics III Basic Concepts of Mechanics Inertial frames of reference, space, time mass, force. Types of forces. Equations of motion; noninertial frames of reference. Conservation laws for closed systems. Planetary motion. Harmonic oscillator. Macroscopic objects: Constraints Hamilton’s principle and Lagrange’s equations. Rigid body dynamics. Coupled oscillators Green’s functions. Normal modes, continuum, limit; Elastic strings, solids, field, canonical variables, Hamilton’s equations. Extras: Introduction to molecular dynamics (MD) simulation: Computer simulation and MD; equations of motion for simulating simple systems, potential functions, interaction computations, integration methods, initial state, performance measurements, trajectory sensitivity. 2 30 0 R PHY 407 Solid State Physics II Dynamics of electrons in solids, transport phenomena, such as electrical and thermal conductivity, with applications to metals and semiconductors! Optical properties of solids with applications to metals, Semiconductors and insulators: magnetic phenomena in solids such as paramagnetism diamagnetism, resonance studies in a magnetic field; superconductivity. 3 45 0 R PHY 408 Electromagnetic Theory Survey of electrodynamics: Basic phenomena and systems of units, Maxwell’s equations. Simple applications: wave guides and transmission lines Moving frames of reference, the Lorentz group. Energy-momentum four vectors, field tensors and relativistic equations of motion. Electro-magnetic waves, plane waves, polarization. Energy, momentum, angular momentum of wave packets. Spherical waves in homogenous wave equation. Green’s function, solution causality. 3 45 0 R PHY 409 Modern Optics Coherence and interference. Michelson and Fabry-Parot interference filters. Fourier interference spectroscopy. Franhoffer and Fresnel disffraction, diffraction, gratings, Laser, holograph. Optics of solids propagation of light in anisotropic solids, the index elipsoid, double refraction, optical activity, electro-optic effects. Introduction to non-linear optics. 2 30 0 R PHY 410 Nuclear Physics Liquid drop model, the shell and collective models. Alpha-decay, Nuclear reactions, Neutron Physics, Fission, Fussion and thermonuclear reactions. Nuclear energy source, the neutron, accelerators, introduction to elementary particles physics and classification of fundamental particles. 2 30 0 R PHY 411 Introduction to Astrophysics An introduction to the physics of the galaxy and the universe as determined from observations at radio, infrared, visible ultraviolet x-ray and gamma-ray wave lengths. The sun and stars, supernove, pulsars, interstellar medium, galaxies, quasars, intergalactic space, cosmology. 2 30 0 E PHY 481 Symmetry Principles and Quantum Theory of Matter Introduction to group theory and the quantum mechanics of atoms. Molecules and crystals. Group representation. The full rotation group and angular momentum selection rules, Symmetry properties of crystals and the group of the K-vectors. 2 30 0 R PHY 482 Reactors and Health Physics Separation of Isotopes, X-section of interaction of neutrons, fast and thermal diffusion length, Neutron diffusion theory, homogenous reactions Fermi Age equation. Types of reactors and their start-up and operation. Effects of Radiation on living cells, somatic and genetic damage. Acute whole body dose syndromes. Uses of Radiation – Industrial uses and Medical uses. Radiation protection, Principles and Methods, Personnel Monitoring using TLD and film. Physics of diagnostic imaging: radiation attenuation coefficients in X-ray and resonance absorption in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); computed tomography; positron emission tomography. Radiation therapy: photons and electrons, radionuclides, neutron therapy and heavy charged particles. 2 30 0 R PHY 483 Physical Principles of Meteorology Thermodynamics and dynamics of atmospheric motion. Solar and terrestial radiation. General circulation. West African Weather Systems. 2 30 0 R PHY 484 Ionospheric Physics The neutral atmosphere. Production of ionospheric layers, Chapman theory. Transport processes. Morphology of the ionosphere. Ionospheric phenomena such as solar flare effects. Sporadic E, Spread F and other irregularities, ionospheric storms. Ionospheric measurements. Geomagnetism and the ionosphere. 2 30 0 R PHY 485 Atmospheric Electricity Fair whether atmospheric electricity, thunder storm electricity and the global atmospheric electric circuit. 2 30 0 R PHY 486 Geomagnetism Earth’s magnetic field. Transient geomagnetic variations. The interaction of the solar plasma with the earth’s magnetic field. Magnetic observatories. 2 30 0 R PHY 487 Collective Processes Studies of the interactions of several bodies with emphasis on their collective effects. 2 30 0 R PHY 488 Solid Earth Physics Seismology, introduction to seismic structure of the earth’s interior Seismicity, Earth tremors and earthquake mechanisms. Theory of Seismometers used for the detection of Earth movements. Introduction to theoretical Seismology. Electromagnetic Induction: Electromagnetic Induction studies, Earth currents and the electrical conductivity of the earth’s interior. Palaeomagnetism: Measurement of natural remnant magnetisation. Rock magnetism and magnetic properties of rocks. Continental drift sea-floor spreading and tectonophysics. 2 30 0 R PHY 489 Selected Topics in Solid State Physics The crystalline state: Basic solid types; atomic physics only packing and crystal structure. Reciprocal lattice. Imperfections in crystals; thermal vibration, point defects and dislocation. Theories and methods of crystal growth. Thin film and application of electron microscope in thin film research. Electrical and Optical Properties in Solids: Procedure for measurements of dielectric constants, conductivity and resistivity in solids Semiconductor Physics: Basic theory transport phenomena, p-n junction, physics of Schottky and surface devices. Use of photo-electric emission in the study of solids. 2 30 0 R PHY497 Physics Projects for Teachers Course content to be tailored to the special needs of education students. 4 C PHY 498 Experimental Physics VI Continuation of PHY 399. Further experiments chosen to illustrate the basic principles of Physics. 2 0 90 C PHY 499 Undergraduate Project 6 C